First in a series about the life of a woman in Norway, 9th Century
One of the awesome things about studying history is learning how folks viewed themselves back in the day. We here in the 21st Century have a great deal going for us, it’s true, but so did people a long time ago. Women have traditionally wielded power in their lives in ancient societies; consciously or not.
Before I go any further, I want to remind you, Reader, that my research into Viking culture has been confined to the early to mid 9th Century. It was a time, in Nordweg (Norway), in which there was no royal hierarchy for there were no kings. There were jarls—strong men who could claim the arms of other men in a time of need and whose opinion mattered—but they didn’t preside over any legal structure. This was a time before the Thing or Althing. This was a time when the law was read by the law reader: the lovsigeman. He memorized the codes of his society and was relied on to be accurate and impartial. He, in turn, would mentor a younger man, teaching his protégée (or more than one, if necessary) to memorize the laws.
In short, there was no central government; just a general sense of the way things were done.
A girl of this time and place might not have even survived childhood to begin with.
All children were subject to acceptance by their father. In general, of course, fathers kept their children alive but occasionally, the children were left to die if they were born with obvious birth defects or if there was a severe economic hardship, such as famine. In addition, approximately 17% of children did not even survive their earliest years. Of those who did, about 16%, it is estimated, didn’t reach adulthood. So our Norse girl, we’ll call her Gerda, is doing fairly well to even be alive and well along the fjørds of Nordweg.
Gerda would have been active about the house and family farm, learning how to card wool from the sheep and goats, and later, how to spin and weave to make cloth from which the family would clothe themselves. It was also important for her to learn to cook filling meals that would keep her family fed and warm during the long winters. She would help her mother or grandmother or elder sister with the family garden, too, learning which plants they would eat and when and which would be used for medicinal purposes.
There were times for fun, too! Outdoor games during the brief sunny times were generally martial in nature, but racing was allowed for girls, too. They also learned, along with the boys, how to play a board game called Hnefa-Tafl, or King’s Table. It was rather like chess in some ways, and it involved strategy and cunning to win. For more information on this, you can visit the Viking Answer Lady at http://www.vikinganswerlady.com/games.shtml.
And, as in most every culture on the planet, Gerda would have had a doll. Wood was often at a premium, so her doll might have been made from cloth scraps, stuffed with wool that wouldn’t have been good for weaving, and dyed. She might have learned to sew by making clothes for her doll. http://www.lothene.org/school5.html
Gerda’s clothes would have been much like her mother’s, and her mother’s before her. Woven of wool and flax (linen), there would have been an undergown, an apron that went from shoulders to knees, and very likely a belt to keep her clothes from getting in her active way. Her shoes would be leather, oiled against the weather. In the warmest days, the apron would have been abandoned, of course, as would have the shoes in all likelihood, allowing Gerda to run barefoot in the grass if she were tending the family livestock.
Next: Young womanhood and the betrothal of a Norse woman.